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Just to be clear we are talking about bitterness and not something else here’s a breakdown of what sometimes get confused-
Bitterness: a flavor primarily caused by phenols and ethanol. Think citrus rinds and cocoa powder.
Astringency: a dry feeling that can effect the whole mouth caused by phenols, namely Tannins. Think strong black tea or chewing on an aspirin.
Tart: a flavor associated with certain acids, in apples mostly malic. It contributes to the “dryness” of the beverage and some people describe it as sour.
There are very few compounds produced during fermentation that would yield a bitter flavor other than alcohols. A variety of compounds can be masked by the presences of sugar. As fermentation proceeds, and more and more sugar is eaten up, those compounds become more available to produce perceptions.
A few answers that would be helpful:
1. Where did the juice come from?
2. Are you using bittersweet or bittersharp apples?
It depends on the product. Anything not defined as “Hard Cider” as per 27 CFR § 24.331 is carbonated under 3.92g/l CO2. Actual “Hard Cider” has a limit of 6.4g/l but that is usually too much for foaming. You would be best to try out some carbonation levels on draft as see how far you can go before it foams.
We are currently using BPA-free cans manufactured by Ball. They are available depending on the size you are looking for.
Here are some draft questions I get asked from accounts:
2) Head Pressure
3) Foaming troubleshooting
4) Pouring Technique
Depends on how involved you want to be, how many trees you want, what kind of tree you’re looking for, how much money you want to spend.
1. If you source the scion and roots, you can make the tree yourself (or hire a grafter) and be your own nurseryman. This is the least expensive method, but you can count on some attrition based on your knowledge and skills.
2. Depending on quantity and scion availability, bench grafts are typically ordered before Jan. of the year you intend to plant.
3. Sleeping eyes are ordered one year prior to the spring you intend to plant.
4. 2-year old feathered trees are 2+ years out.
Hope that helps